# Numba - an overview¶

Numba is a just-in-time compiler for Python that works best on code that uses NumPy arrays and functions, and loops. ArviZ includes Numba as an optional dependency and a number of functions have been included in utils.py for systems in which Numba is pre-installed. An additional functionality of disabling/re-enabling numba for systems which have numba installed has also been included.

## A simple example to display the effectiveness of Numba¶

:

import arviz as az
import numpy as np
import timeit

from arviz.utils import conditional_jit, Numba
from arviz.stats import geweke
from arviz.stats.diagnostics import ks_summary

:

data = np.random.randn(1000000)

:

def variance(data, ddof=0):  # Method to calculate variance without using numba
a_a, b_b = 0, 0
for i in data:
a_a = a_a + i
b_b = b_b + i * i
var = b_b / (len(data)) - ((a_a / (len(data))) ** 2)
var = var * (len(data) / (len(data) - ddof))
return var

:

%timeit variance(data, ddof=1)

2.61 s ± 569 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)

:

@conditional_jit
def variance_jit(data, ddof=0):  # Calculating variance with numba
a_a, b_b = 0, 0
for i in data:
a_a = a_a + i
b_b = b_b + i * i
var = b_b / (len(data)) - ((a_a / (len(data))) ** 2)
var = var * (len(data) / (len(data) - ddof))
return var

:

%timeit variance_jit(data, ddof=1)

1.54 ms ± 383 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)


That is almost 300 times faster!! Let’s compare this to numpy

:

%timeit np.var(data, ddof=1)

8.68 ms ± 435 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 100 loops each)


In certain scenarios, Numba outperforms numpy! Let’s see Numba’s effect on a few of ArviZ functions

:

Numba.disable_numba()  # This disables numba
Numba.numba_flag

:

False

:

data = np.random.randn(1000000)
smaller_data = np.random.randn(1000)

:

%timeit geweke(data)

74.7 ms ± 3.53 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10 loops each)

:

%timeit geweke(smaller_data)

3.85 ms ± 158 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 100 loops each)

:

Numba.enable_numba()  # This will re-enable numba
Numba.numba_flag  # This indicates the status of Numba

:

True

:

%timeit geweke(data)

43.8 ms ± 22.4 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)

:

%timeit geweke(smaller_data)

2.51 ms ± 584 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1000 loops each)

:

Numba.enable_numba()
Numba.numba_flag

:

True


Numba speeds up the code by a factor of two approximately. Let’s check some other method

:

summary_data = np.random.randn(1000, 100, 10)

:

Numba.disable_numba()
Numba.numba_flag

:

False

:

%timeit ks_summary(summary_data)

182 ms ± 66.3 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)

:

%timeit ks_summary(school)

10.4 ms ± 2.97 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 100 loops each)

:

Numba.enable_numba()
Numba.numba_flag

:

True

:

%timeit ks_summary(summary_data)

19.9 ms ± 1.37 ms per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)

:

%timeit ks_summary(school)

3.97 ms ± 574 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)


Numba has provided a substantial speedup once again.